Chapada Diamantina (Portuguese for the "Diamond Plateau") is a region of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil. This same chain receives other names, like Serra do Espinhaço, in Minas Gerais, and Borborema, in Pernambuco and Paraíba.
The Chapada Diamantina is at the center of Bahia state, in the Northeast of Brazil. It is the northern zone of the Espinhaço Range, has approximately 38,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi) and encompasses 58 municipalities. Technically it is considered part of the caatinga biome, and is the highest area in this biome, almost all of it over 500 metres (1,600 ft) of altitude. The vegetation, always conditioned by the physiographic conditions, is represented by the cerrado, rocky fields, forests and caatinga, all of them harbouring great biodiversity and endemisms. The regions climate is considered to be Mesotermic, of the Cwb according to the Köppen classification, and is quite cooler than the surrounding areas, with annual averages under 22 °C.
It has huge canyons with rivers of brownish waters and several waterfalls. The high altitude grasslands are known locally as Gerais. The trails were once used by miners in their search for diamonds. From Lençóis, one of the most important cities in the area, one can find quite a few ecotourism agencies as well as independent guides. Among the main attractions are the Morro do Pai Inácio (Pai Inácio Hill), Cachoeira da Fumaça, Mixila Waterfall, Sossego Waterfall and the Vale do Pati which is considered the best trekking destination in the country. Rock climbing is a relatively new activity, but is developing quickly as some local and outside climbers are opening more and more routes, mainly in the city of Lençóis and at Vale do Capão, district of Palmeiras and at Igatu, district of Andaraí. Lençóis, one of the main cities, is 420 kilometres (1,380,000 ft) from Salvador and can be reached by car, bus or plane. Another important city is Iraquara. It has a lot of caves, where prehistoric rock art and other evidence of primitive life can be found. For this reason, Iraquara received the nickname "City of Caves"